Osteoporosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and influences quality of life, as well as life expectancy. Currently, there is a growing interest among the medical scientists in search of specific nutrients and/or bioactive compounds of natural origin for the prevention of disease and maintenance of bone health. Although calcium and vitamin D have been the primary focus of nutritional prevention of osteoporosis, a recent research has clarified the importance of several additional nutrients and food constituents. Based on this review of the literature, supplementation with vitamins B, C, K, and silicon could be recommended for proper maintenance of bone health, although further clinical studies are needed. The results of studies on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, potassium, magnesium, cop- per, selenium, and strontium are not conclusive, although studies in vitro and in animal models are interesting and promising.