Antioxidant micronutrients and cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes: a systematic review.
Arq Bras Cardiol. 2013 Sep;101(3):240-8
Authors: Sarmento RA, Silva FM, Sbruzzi G, Schaan BD, Almeida JC
BACKGROUND: Inverse associations between micronutrient intake and cardiovascular outcomes have been previously shown, but did not focus on diabetic patients.
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the role of micronutrients in the development/presence of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes.
METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and Scopus (January/1949-March/2012) for observational studies that evaluated micronutrients and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes, and then selected and extracted the data (two independent reviewers).
RESULTS: From the 15 658 studies identified, five were included, comprising three case-control and two cohorts, with a follow-up of 7-15 years. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the different antioxidant micronutrients (types and measurement methods) and outcomes evaluated. The micronutrients assessed were vitamin C intake in diet and/or supplementation, chromium and selenium in toenail samples, and α-tocopherol and zinc in serum levels. Intake of >300 mg of vitamin C through supplementation was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke (RR 1.69-2.37). High levels of α-tocopherol in serum were associated with 30% lower CAD risk in another study (HR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53-0.94). Among minerals (zinc, selenium, and chromium), an inverse association between zinc and CAD was observed; levels lower than 14.1 µmol/L were associated with an increased risk for CAD (RR 1.70; 95%CI 1.21-2.38).
CONCLUSION: The information available on this issue is scarce. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the role of these nutrients in the cardiovascular risk of patients with diabetes.
PMID: 23877741 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]