Heavy metal in the intensive care unit: a review of current literature on trace element supplementation in critically ill patients.
Nutr Clin Pract. 2014 Feb;29(1):78-89
Authors: Rech M, To L, Tovbin A, Smoot T, Mlynarek M
Trace elements are essential for many physiologic processes. In recent years, supplementation has been studied for a variety of indications, including glycemic control, wound healing, antioxidant effect, and anemia. Critical illness, especially states such as burns, traumas, and septic shock, is associated with inflammatory and oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and malnutrition. In these patients, enteral and parenteral nutrition or pharmaceutical supplementation is used to provide essential macronutrients, including trace elements. The purpose of this review is to describe trace element supplementation, including iron, copper, chromium, manganese, selenium, and zinc, and highlight their mechanism, pharmacology, outcome data, and adverse effects.
PMID: 24336443 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]