Authors: Jain N, Minhajuddin AT, Neeland IJ, Elsayed EF, Vega GL, Hedayati SS
Citation: Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2014 May;99(5):992-8
PMID : 24552753, Journal: Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 99, 5
Date created: 2014-04-21
BACKGROUND: Previous studies that reported an association of dietary Na(+) intake with metabolic syndrome were limited by the use of imprecise measures of obesity, Na(+) intake, or exclusion of multiethnic populations. The effect of dietary K(+) intake on obesity is less well described.
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that high dietary Na(+) and low K(+), based on the ratio of urinary Na(+) to K(+) (U[Na(+)]/[K(+)]) in a first-void morning urinary sample, is independently associated with total body fat.
DESIGN: In a prospective population-based cohort, 2782 participants in the community-dwelling, probability-sampled, multiethnic Dallas Heart Study were analyzed. The primary outcome established a priori was total-body percentage fat (TBPF) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The main predictor was U[Na(+)]/[K(+)]. Robust linear regression was used to explore an independent association between U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] and TBPF. The analyses were stratified by sex and race after their effect modifications were analyzed.
RESULTS: Of the cohort, 55.4% were female, 49.8% African American, 30.8% white, 17.2% Hispanic, and 2.2% other races. The mean (±SD) age was 44 ± 10 y, BMI (in kg/m(2)) was 30 ± 7, TBPF was 32 ± 10%, and U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] was 4.2 ± 2.6; 12% had diabetes. In the unadjusted and adjusted models, TBPF increased by 0.75 (95% CI: 0.25, 1.25) and 0.43 (0.15, 0.72), respectively (P = 0.003 for both), for every 3-unit increase in U[Na(+)]/[K(+)]. A statistically significant interaction was found between race and U[Na(+)] /[K(+)], so that the non-African American races had a higher TBPF than did the African Americans per unit increase in U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] (P-interaction < 0.0001 for both). No interaction was found between sex and U[Na(+)]/[K(+)].
CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of dietary Na(+) to K(+) intake may be independently associated with TBPF, and this association may be more pronounced in non-African Americans. Future studies should explore whether easily measured spot U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] can be used to monitor dietary patterns and guide strategies for obesity management.